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May 21st 2020
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triton-go is a client SDK for Go applications using Joyent’s Triton Compute and Object Storage (Manta) APIs.

The Triton Go SDK is used in the following open source projects.


Triton uses HTTP Signature to sign the Date header in each HTTP request made to the Triton API. Currently, requests can be signed using either a private key file loaded from disk (using an authentication.PrivateKeySigner), or using a key stored with the local SSH Agent (using an SSHAgentSigner.

To construct a Signer, use the New* range of methods in the authentication package. In the case of authentication.NewSSHAgentSigner, the parameters are the fingerprint of the key with which to sign, and the account name (normally stored in the TRITON_ACCOUNT environment variable). There is also support for passing in a username, this will allow you to use an account other than the main Triton account. For example:

input := authentication.SSHAgentSignerInput{
    KeyID:       "a4:c6:f3:75:80:27:e0:03:a9:98:79:ef:c5:0a:06:11",
    AccountName: "AccountName",
    Username:    "Username",
sshKeySigner, err := authentication.NewSSHAgentSigner(input)
if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("NewSSHAgentSigner: %s", err)

An appropriate key fingerprint can be generated using ssh-keygen.

ssh-keygen -Emd5 -lf ~/.ssh/ | cut -d " " -f 2 | sed 's/MD5://'

Each top level package, account, compute, identity, network, all have their own separate client. In order to initialize a package client, simply pass the global triton.ClientConfig struct into the client’s constructor function.

config := &triton.ClientConfig{
    TritonURL:   os.Getenv("TRITON_URL"),
    MantaURL:    os.Getenv("MANTA_URL"),
    AccountName: accountName,
    Username:    os.Getenv("TRITON_USER"),
    Signers:     []authentication.Signer{sshKeySigner},

c, err := compute.NewClient(config)
if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("compute.NewClient: %s", err)

Constructing compute.Client returns an interface which exposes compute API resources. The same goes for all other packages. Reference their unique documentation for more information.

The same triton.ClientConfig will initialize the Manta storage client as well…

c, err := storage.NewClient(config)
if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("storage.NewClient: %s", err)

Error Handling

If an error is returned by the HTTP API, the error returned from the function will contain an instance of errors.APIError in the chain. Error wrapping is performed using the pkg/errors library.

Acceptance Tests

Acceptance Tests run directly against the Triton API (e.g. CloudAPI), so you will need an installation of Triton in order to run them, or COAL (Cloud On A Laptop). The tests create real resources and thus could cost real money if you are using a paid Triton account! It is also possible that the acceptance tests will leave behind resources, so extra attention will be needed to clean up these test resources.

The acceptance tests depend upon a few things in your Triton setup:

  • the Ubuntu 16.04 LX image to be installed
  • a generic package with Memory in the range of 128MB to 1024MB
  • a public (external) network to provision with
  • if your Triton setup is used for testing - then running sdcadm post-setup dev-sample-data ensure these conditions are met

In order to run acceptance tests, the following environment variables must be set:

  • TRITON_TEST - must be set to any value in order to indicate desire to create resources
  • TRITON_URL - the base endpoint for the Triton API
  • TRITON_ACCOUNT - the account name for the Triton API
  • TRITON_KEY_ID - the fingerprint of the SSH key identifying the key
  • TRITON_SKIP_TLS_VERIFY - skips the checking of the server’s TLS certificate. This is insecure and should only be used for internal/testing.

Additionally, you may set these optional environment variables:

  • TRITON_KEY_MATERIAL to the contents of an unencrypted private key. If this is set, the PrivateKeySigner (see above) will be used - if not the SSHAgentSigner will be used. You can also set TRITON_USER to run the tests against an account other than the main Triton account.
  • TRITON_TRACE_HTTP - when set this will print the HTTP requests and responses to stderr.
  • TRITON_VERBOSE_TESTS - turns on extra logging for test runs

Example Run

The verbose output has been removed for brevity here.

$ HTTP_PROXY=http://localhost:8888 \
    TRITON_ACCOUNT=AccountName \
    TRITON_KEY_ID=a4:c6:f3:75:80:27:e0:03:a9:98:79:ef:c5:0a:06:11 \
    go test -v -run "TestAccKey"
=== RUN   TestAccKey_Create
--- PASS: TestAccKey_Create (12.46s)
=== RUN   TestAccKey_Get
--- PASS: TestAccKey_Get (4.30s)
=== RUN   TestAccKey_Delete
--- PASS: TestAccKey_Delete (15.08s)
ok	31.861s

Example API

There’s an examples/ directory available with sample code setup for many of the APIs within this library. Most of these can be run using go run and referencing your SSH key file use by your active triton CLI profile.

$ eval "$(triton env us-sw-1)"
$ TRITON_KEY_FILE=~/.ssh/triton-id_rsa go run examples/compute/instances.go

The following is a complete example of how to initialize the compute package client and list all instances under an account. More detailed usage of this library follows.

package main

import (

    triton ""

func main() {
    keyID := os.Getenv("TRITON_KEY_ID")
    accountName := os.Getenv("TRITON_ACCOUNT")
    keyMaterial := os.Getenv("TRITON_KEY_MATERIAL")
    userName := os.Getenv("TRITON_USER")

    var signer authentication.Signer
    var err error

    if keyMaterial == "" {
        input := authentication.SSHAgentSignerInput{
            KeyID:       keyID,
            AccountName: accountName,
            Username:    userName,
        signer, err = authentication.NewSSHAgentSigner(input)
        if err != nil {
            log.Fatalf("Error Creating SSH Agent Signer: {{err}}", err)
    } else {
        var keyBytes []byte
        if _, err = os.Stat(keyMaterial); err == nil {
            keyBytes, err = ioutil.ReadFile(keyMaterial)
            if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf("Error reading key material from %s: %s",
                    keyMaterial, err)
            block, _ := pem.Decode(keyBytes)
            if block == nil {
                    "Failed to read key material '%s': no key found", keyMaterial)

            if block.Headers["Proc-Type"] == "4,ENCRYPTED" {
                    "Failed to read key '%s': password protected keys are\n"+
                        "not currently supported. Please decrypt the key prior to use.", keyMaterial)

        } else {
            keyBytes = []byte(keyMaterial)

        input := authentication.PrivateKeySignerInput{
            KeyID:              keyID,
            PrivateKeyMaterial: keyBytes,
            AccountName:        accountName,
            Username:           userName,
        signer, err = authentication.NewPrivateKeySigner(input)
        if err != nil {
            log.Fatalf("Error Creating SSH Private Key Signer: {{err}}", err)

    config := &triton.ClientConfig{
        TritonURL:   os.Getenv("TRITON_URL"),
        AccountName: accountName,
        Username:    userName,
        Signers:     []authentication.Signer{signer},

    c, err := compute.NewClient(config)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("compute.NewClient: %s", err)

    listInput := &compute.ListInstancesInput{}
    instances, err := c.Instances().List(context.Background(), listInput)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalf("compute.Instances.List: %v", err)
    numInstances := 0
    for _, instance := range instances {
        fmt.Println(fmt.Sprintf("-- Instance: %v", instance.Name))